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List of birds of Nigeria

2009-04-14 18:34:12  
The Proteus is an experimental watercraft testbed for the Wave Adaptive Modular Vessel technology developed by Ugo Conti's Marine Advanced Research and is the first of its class. Because of its use of four legs connecting the superstructure to the outriggers, the ship has earned the nickname of "The Spider Ship" or "Spider Boat".1 The unusual design attracted public attention during early trials, before it even had a registration number.2

 

 

Construction

The Proteus is similar in design to a catamaran, in that it uses a twin hull design and no keel. Unlike most catamarans however, the superstructure is not rigidly attached to the hulls. The ship uses titanium shock absorbers to travel with the waves in the ocean, rather than through them. This method should theoretically allow the ship to move faster through the water while burning less fuel, however sea trials are yet to be completed. Hogging and sagging should also be reduced as well.

The Proteus is 100 feet (30 m) long, while its beam is 50 feet (15 m) allowing for relatively normal Initial stability coefficient of 2:1. Its draft fluctuates more than a traditional ship, but at half load it is 8 inches (200 mm) at the bow and 16 inches (410 mm) at the stern. Because of the ship's limited draft andinflatablehulls it is able to be beached without damage. The ship's bridge, cargo hold and berthing for four are located in the cabin that hangs down from the four legs. The cabin can be lowered into the water 20 feet (6.1 m) below and can run under its own power. It has been designed this way to allow offshore anchoring of the seadrive section of the craft, while allowing the cabin to be moored in a marina.

The Proteus is constructed of titanium, aluminum and reinforced fabrics. The ship's displacement is 12 tons when carrying its maximum cargo of 2 tons. Its outriggers store the 2,000 gallons of fuel that power the two Cummins Marine Diesel Quantum Series QSB5.9 355 horsepower engines at their sterns.

 

Press release

On September 7, 2007, Daniel Basta, director of the National Marine Sanctuaries for the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, stated that Proteus is a Wave Adaptive Modular Vessel (designed for military uses, biological studies, ocean exploration and sea rescue). It is a lightweight, low cost and modular craft, which can travel 5,000 miles (8,000 km) on 2,000 imperial gallons (9,100 L) of diesel fuel. Proteus will be able to launch and recover automatic vehicles as well as engage in remote vehicle operations. Its first appearance in New York is the 4th leg of a tour that began in San Francisco in January and will end in Washington, D.C.. Ugo Conti (Italian engineer and oceanographer who designed Proteus) and his wife, Isabella Conti, are co-founders of Marine Advanced Research, Inc., a Silicon Valley-based firm that created the Proteus for $1.5 million. The Proteus has a maximum a speed of 30 knots (34.5 mph).

    SEC Fanfare includes festivities and events for young and old alike. Festivities in the 2006 SEC Fanfare event included field goal kicking, where people would receive three to four chances to kick a football through a life sizeinflatablefield goal, flag football, where teams of three, four, and five would match up against each other in a small game of football, and an interactive television station including eight to ten televisions in which people could play the recently released NCAA Football 2007 on Playstation 2's. The event, sponsored by Dr Pepper, includes stations around the Center where fans had the opportunity to enjoy different types of the company's signature drink. Lincoln Financial Sports is usually on hand, and usually, including this year, does broadcasts from the various stations around the event, highlighting the different aspects of the festivities. Other activities included in the event included face painting, where for a small prices, people could get their face painted with their team's colors, logo, mascot, or all. Famous former SEC Players were also involved in the event, and fans were given the chance to interact with the famous players by participating in various contests, most involving throwing footballs into targets down the field. Fanfare also includes a large store, in which attendees can purchase apparel and items such as hats, flags, t-shirts, and various novelty items displaying their favorite team's logo and colors. Closing out the event, just a few hours prior to the SEC Championship Game, the teams participating in the game hold pep rallys near the Fanfare. In 2006, the Arkansas Razorbacks and the eventual 2007 national champion Florida Gators both held pep rallys shortly following the end of the Fanfare.

    The 2007 SEC Fanfare will also be held at the Georgia World Congress Center, and will most likely have most of the same events. The date for the event will be set at a later time, most likely during the first week in December. Tickets for the 2007 Event can be bought before hand through the SEC, or at the gate upon entering the event.

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Nigeria. The avifauna of Nigeria includes a total of 940 species, of which 4 are endemic and 5 are rare or accidental.

 

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th ion. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species counts for Nigeria.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. It must be noted that not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring, native species.

  • (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Nigeria.
  • (E) Endemic A species endemic to Nigeria.


 

Ostriches

Order: Struthioniformes Family: Struthionidae

The Ostrich is a flightless bird native to Africa. It is the largest living species of bird. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at high speeds.

  • Ostrich Struthio camelus

 

Grebes

Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis
  • Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus
  • Eared Grebe Podiceps nigricollis

 

Shearwaters and Petrels

Order: Procellariiformes Family: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus
  • Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus

 

Storm-Petrels

Order: Procellariiformes Family: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • Wilson's Storm-Petrel Oceanites oceanicus

 

Tropicbirds

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus
  • White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus

 

Pelicans

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus
  • Pink-backed Pelican Pelecanus rufescens

 

Boobies and Gannets

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Cape Gannet Morus capensis
  • Brown Booby Sula leucogaster

 

Cormorants

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
  • Long-tailed Cormorant Phalacrocorax africanus

 

Darters

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Anhingidae

Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • Darter Anhinga melanogaster

 

Frigatebirds

Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black and white or completely black, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males haveinflatablecoloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • Ascension Island Frigatebird Fregata aquila

 

Bitterns, Herons and Egrets

Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Gray Heron Ardea cinerea
  • Black-headed Heron Ardea melanocephala
  • Goliath Heron Ardea goliath
  • Purple Heron Ardea purpurea
  • Great Egret Ardea alba
  • Black Heron Egretta ardesiaca
  • Intermediate Egret Egretta intermedia
  • Western Reef-Heron Egretta gularis
  • Little Egret Egretta garzetta
  • Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides
  • Madagascar Pond-Heron Ardeola idae (A)
  • Rufous-bellied Heron Ardeola rufiventris
  • Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
  • Striated Heron Butorides striata
  • Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
  • White-backed Night-Heron Gorsachius leuconotus
  • White-crested Bittern Tigriornis leucolophus
  • Dwarf Bittern Ixobrychus sturmii
  • Great Bittern Botaurus stellaris

 

Hammerkop

Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Scopidae

The Hammerkop is a medium-sized bird with a long shaggy crest. The shape of its head with a curved bill and crest at the back is reminiscent of a hammer, hence its name. Its plumage is a drab brown all over.

  • Hamerkop Scopus umbretta

 

Storks

Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Yellow-billed Stork Mycteria ibis
  • African Openbill Anastomus lamelligerus
  • Black Stork Ciconia nigra
  • Abdim's Stork Ciconia abdimii
  • Woolly-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus
  • White Stork Ciconia ciconia
  • Saddle-billed Stork Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis
  • Marabou Stork Leptoptilos crumeniferus

 

Ibises and Spoonbills

Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Threskiornithidae

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus
  • Olive Ibis Bostrychia olivacea
  • Spot-breasted Ibis Bostrychia rara
  • Hadada Ibis Bostrychia hagedash
  • Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus
  • Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia
  • African Spoonbill Platalea alba

 

Flamingos

Order: Phoenicopteriformes Family: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • Lesser Flamingo Phoenicopterus minor

 

Ducks, Geese and Swans

Order: Anseriformes Family: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 25 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor
  • White-faced Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna viduata
  • White-backed Duck Thalassornis leuconotus
  • Bean Goose Anser fabalis
  • Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons
  • Egyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiacus
  • Spur-winged Goose Plectropterus gambensis
  • Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos
  • Hartlaub's Duck Pteronetta hartlaubii
  • African Pygmy-goose Nettapus auritus
  • African Black Duck Anas sparsa
  • Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope
  • Gadwall Anas strepera
  • Eurasian Teal Anas crecca
  • Cape Teal Anas capensis
  • Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
  • Yellow-billed Duck Anas undulata
  • Northern Pintail Anas acuta
  • Hottentot Teal Anas hottentota
  • Garganey Anas querquedula
  • Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata
  • Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris
  • Common Pochard Aythya ferina
  • Ferruginous Pochard Aythya nyroca
  • Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula

 

Osprey

Order: Falconiformes Family: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

  • Osprey Pandion haliaetus

 

Hawks, Kites and Eagles

Order: Falconiformes Family: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 48 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • African Cuckoo Hawk Aviceda cuculoides
  • European Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus
  • Bat Hawk Macheiramphus alcinus
  • Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus
  • Scissor-tailed Kite Chelictinia riocourii
  • Black Kite Milvus migrans
  • African Fish Eagle Haliaeetus vocifer
  • Palm-nut Vulture Gypohierax angolensis
  • Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus
  • Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus
  • White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus
  • Rueppell's Griffon Gyps rueppellii
  • Lappet-faced Vulture Torgos tracheliotus
  • White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis
  • Beaudouin's Snake Eagle Circaetus beaudouini
  • Brown Snake Eagle Circaetus cinereus
  • Banded Snake Eagle Circaetus cinerascens
  • Bateleur Terathopius ecaudatus
  • Congo Serpent Eagle Dryotriorchis spectabilis
  • Western Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus
  • African Marsh Harrier Circus ranivorus
  • Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus
  • Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus
  • African Harrier Hawk Polyboroides typus
  • Lizard Buzzard Kaupifalco monogrammicus
  • Dark Chanting Goshawk Melierax metabates
  • Gabar Goshawk Micronisus gabar
  • Red-chested Goshawk Accipiter toussenelii
  • Chestnut-flanked Sparrowhawk Accipiter castanilius
  • Shikra Accipiter badius
  • Red-thighed Sparrowhawk Accipiter erythropus
  • Ovampo Sparrowhawk Accipiter ovampensis
  • Black Goshawk Accipiter melanoleucus
  • Long-tailed Hawk Urotriorchis macrourus
  • Grasshopper Buzzard Butastur rufipennis
  • Eurasian Buzzard Buteo buteo
  • Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus
  • Red-necked Buzzard Buteo auguralis
  • Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina
  • Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax
  • Wahlberg's Eagle Aquila wahlbergi
  • African Hawk Eagle Aquila spilogaster
  • Booted Eagle Aquila pennatus
  • Ayres's Hawk-eagle Aquila ayresii
  • Martial Eagle Polemaetus bellicosus
  • Long-crested Eagle Lophaetus occipitalis
  • Cassin's Hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus
  • Crowned Hawk Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus

 

Secretary-bird

Order: Falconiformes Family: Sagittariidae

The Secretary-bird is a bird of prey in the order Falconiformes but is easily distinguished from other raptors by it long crane-like legs.

  • Secretary-bird Sagittarius serpentarius

 

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: Falconiformes Family: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni
  • Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
  • Fox Kestrel Falco alopex
  • Gray Kestrel Falco ardosiaceus
  • Red-necked Falcon Falco chicquera
  • Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus
  • Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo
  • African Hobby Falco cuvierii
  • Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus
  • Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus

 

Pheasants and Partridges

Order: Galliformes Family: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Coqui Francolin Francolinus coqui
  • White-throated Francolin Francolinus albogularis
  • Forest Francolin Francolinus lathami
  • Scaly Francolin Francolinus squamatus
  • Ahanta Francolin Francolinus ahantensis
  • Double-spurred Francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus
  • Clapperton's Francolin Francolinus clappertoni
  • Harlequin Quail Coturnix delegorguei
  • Blue Quail Coturnix adansonii
  • Stone Partridge Ptilopachus petrosus

 

Guineafowl

Order: Galliformes Family: Numididae

Guineafowl are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage. There are 6 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Black Guineafowl Agelastes niger
  • Helmeted Guineafowl Numida meleagris
  • Crested Guineafowl Guttera pucherani

 

Buttonquails

Order: Gruiformes Family: Turnicidae

The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes, and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Small Buttonquail Turnix sylvatica
  • Hottentot Buttonquail Turnix hottentotta
  • Quail-plover Ortyxelos meiffrenii

 

Cranes

Order: Gruiformes Family: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Black Crowned-Crane Balearica pavonina
  • Demoiselle Crane Anthropoides virgo
  • Common Crane Grus grus

 

Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots

Order: Gruiformes Family: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • White-spotted Flufftail Sarothrura pulchra
  • Buff-spotted Flufftail Sarothrura elegans
  • Red-chested Flufftail Sarothrura rufa
  • Chestnut-headed Flufftail Sarothrura lugens
  • Streaky-breasted Flufftail Sarothrura boehmi
  • Nkulengu Rail Himantornis haematopus
  • Gray-throated Rail Canirallus oculeus
  • African Crake Crecopsis egregia
  • Corn Crake Crex crex
  • Black Crake Amaurornis flavirostris
  • Little Crake Porzana parva
  • Baillon's Crake Porzana pusilla
  • Spotted Crake Porzana porzana
  • Striped Crake Aenigmatolimnas marginalis
  • Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio
  • Allen's Gallinule Porphyrio alleni
  • Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
  • Lesser Moorhen Gallinula angulata
  • Eurasian Coot Fulica atra

 

Sungrebe and Finfoots

Order: Gruiformes Family: Heliornithidae

The Heliornithidae are small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • African Finfoot Podica senegalensis

 

Bustards

Order: Gruiformes Family: Otididae

Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips, and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Arabian Bustard Ardeotis arabs
  • Stanley Bustard Neotis denhami
  • Nubian Bustard Neotis nuba
  • White-bellied Bustard Eupodotis senegalensis
  • Savile's Bustard Eupodotis savilei
  • Black-bellied Bustard Lissotis melanogaster

 

Jacanas

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Lesser Jacana Microparra capensis
  • African Jacana Actophilornis africanus

 

Painted snipe

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Rostratulidae

Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • Greater Painted-snipe Rostratula benghalensis

 

Oystercatchers

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

 

Avocets and Stilts

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus
  • Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta

 

Thick-knees

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Water Thick-knee Burhinus vermiculatus
  • Eurasian Thick-knee Burhinus oedicnemus
  • Senegal Thick-knee Burhinus senegalensis
  • Spotted Thick-knee Burhinus capensis

 

Pratincoles and Coursers

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Egyptian Plover Pluvianus aegyptius
  • Cream-colored Courser Cursorius cursor
  • Temminck's Courser Cursorius temminckii
  • Bronze-winged Courser Rhinoptilus chalcopterus
  • Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola
  • Black-winged Pratincole Glareola nordmanni
  • Rock Pratincole Glareola nuchalis
  • Gray Pratincole Glareola cinerea

 

Plovers and Lapwings

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Long-toed Lapwing Vanellus crassirostris
  • Spur-winged Plover Vanellus spinosus
  • Black-headed Lapwing Vanellus tectus
  • White-headed Lapwing Vanellus albiceps
  • Senegal Lapwing Vanellus lugubris
  • Wattled Lapwing Vanellus senegallus
  • Brown-chested Lapwing Vanellus superciliosus
  • White-tailed Lapwing Vanellus leucurus
  • Pacific Golden-Plover Pluvialis fulva (A)
  • American Golden-Plover Pluvialis dominica
  • European Golden-Plover Pluvialis apricaria
  • Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola
  • Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula
  • Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius
  • Kittlitz's Plover Charadrius pecuarius
  • Three-banded Plover Charadrius tricollaris
  • Forbes's Plover Charadrius forbesi
  • White-fronted Plover Charadrius marginatus
  • Snowy Plover Charadrius alexandrinus
  • Greater Sandplover Charadrius leschenaultii
  • Caspian Plover Charadrius asiaticus

 

Sandpipers and allies

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 28 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus
  • Great Snipe Gallinago media
  • Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago
  • Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa
  • Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica
  • Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
  • Slender-billed Curlew Numenius tenuirostris
  • Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata
  • Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus
  • Common Redshank Tringa totanus
  • Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis
  • Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia
  • Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes (A)
  • Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus
  • Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola
  • Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus
  • Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
  • Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres
  • Red Knot Calidris canutus
  • Sanderling Calidris alba
  • Little Stint Calidris minuta
  • Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii
  • Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea
  • Dunlin Calidris alpina
  • Broad-billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus
  • Ruff Philomachus pugnax
  • Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus
  • Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius

 

Skuas and Jaegers

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Great Skua Stercorarius skua
  • Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus
  • Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus
  • Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus

 

Gulls

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus
  • Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans
  • Gray-headed Gull Larus cirrocephalus
  • Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus
  • Slender-billed Gull Larus genei
  • Little Gull Larus minutus
  • Sabine's Gull Xema sabini

 

Terns

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica
  • Caspian Tern Sterna caspia
  • Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis
  • Royal Tern Sterna maxima
  • Great Crested Tern Sterna bergii
  • Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii
  • Common Tern Sterna hirundo
  • Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea
  • Little Tern Sterna albifrons
  • Damara Tern Sterna balaenarum
  • Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus
  • Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata
  • Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus
  • White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus
  • Black Tern Chlidonias niger
  • Black Noddy Anous minutus
  • Brown Noddy Anous stolidus

 

Skimmers

Order: Charadriiformes Family: Rynchopidae

Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • African Skimmer Rynchops flavirostris

 

Sandgrouse

Order: Pterocliformes Family: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles exustus
  • Four-banded Sandgrouse Pterocles quadricinctus

 

Pigeons and Doves

Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Rock Pigeon Columba livia
  • Speckled Pigeon Columba guinea
  • Afep Pigeon Columba unicincta
  • Rameron Pigeon Columba arquatrix
  • Cameroon Pigeon Columba sjostedti
  • Bronze-naped Pigeon Columba iriditorques
  • Lemon Dove Columba larvata
  • Eurasian Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur
  • Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia hypopyrrha
  • African Collared Dove Streptopelia roseogrisea
  • African Mourning Dove Streptopelia decipiens
  • Red-eyed Dove Streptopelia semitorquata
  • Vinaceous Dove Streptopelia vinacea
  • Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis
  • Black-billed Wood Dove Turtur abyssinicus
  • Blue-spotted Wood Dove Turtur afer
  • Tambourine Dove Turtur tympanistria
  • Blue-headed Wood Dove Turtur brehmeri
  • Namaqua Dove Oena capensis
  • Bruce's Green Pigeon Treron waalia
  • African Green Pigeon Treron calva

 

Parrots, Macaws and allies

Order: Psittaciformes Family: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri
  • Red-headed Lovebird Agapornis pullarius
  • Gray Parrot Psittacus erithacus
  • Brown-necked Parrot Poicephalus robustus
  • Senegal Parrot Poicephalus senegalus

 

Turacos

Order: Cuculiformes Family: Musophagidae

The turacos, plantain eaters and go-away birds make up the bird family Musophagidae. They are medium-sized arboreal birds. The turacos and plantain eaters are brightly coloured birds, usually blue, green or purple. The go-away birds are mostly grey and white. There are 23 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Great Blue Turaco Corythaeola cristata
  • Guinea Turaco Tauraco persa
  • White-crested Turaco Tauraco leucolophus
  • Yellow-billed Turaco Tauraco macrorhynchus
  • Violet Turaco Musophaga violacea
  • Western Plantain-eater Crinifer piscator

 

Cuckoos and Anis

Order: Cuculiformes Family: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Pied Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus
  • Levaillant's Cuckoo Clamator levaillantii
  • Great Spotted Cuckoo Clamator glandarius
  • Thick-billed Cuckoo Pachycoccyx audeberti
  • Red-chested Cuckoo Cuculus solitarius
  • Black Cuckoo Cuculus clamosus
  • Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus
  • African Cuckoo Cuculus gularis
  • Dusky Long-tailed Cuckoo Cercococcyx mechowi
  • Olive Long-tailed Cuckoo Cercococcyx olivinus
  • Yellow-throated Cuckoo Chrysococcyx flavigularis
  • Klaas's Cuckoo Chrysococcyx klaas
  • African Emerald Cuckoo Chrysococcyx cupreus
  • Dideric Cuckoo Chrysococcyx caprius
  • Yellowbill Ceuthmochares aereus
  • Black Coucal Centropus grillii
  • Black-throated Coucal Centropus leucogaster
  • Blue-headed Coucal Centropus monachus
  • Senegal Coucal Centropus senegalensis

 

Barn owls

Order: Strigiformes Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • Barn Owl Tyto alba

 

Typical owls

Order: Strigiformes Family: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • African Scops Owl Otus senegalensis
  • European Scops Owl Otus scops
  • Northern White-faced Owl Ptilopsis leucotis
  • Greyish Eagle Owl Bubo cinerascens
  • Fraser's Eagle Owl Bubo poensis
  • Verreaux's Eagle Owl Bubo lacteus
  • Akun Eagle Owl Bubo leucostictus
  • Pel's Fishing Owl Scotopelia peli
  • Vermiculated Fishing Owl Scotopelia bouvieri
  • African Wood Owl Strix woodfordii
  • Pearl-spotted Owlet Glaucidium perlatum
  • Sjostedt's Owlet Glaucidium sjostedti
  • Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus
  • Marsh Owl Asio capensis

 

Nightjars

Order: Caprimulgiformes Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Red-necked Nightjar Caprimulgus ruficollis
  • Eurasian Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus
  • Rufous-cheeked Nightjar Caprimulgus rufigena
  • Egyptian Nightjar Caprimulgus aegyptius
  • Black-shouldered Nightjar Caprimulgus nigriscapularis
  • Fiery-necked Nightjar Caprimulgus pectoralis
  • Swamp Nightjar Caprimulgus natalensis
  • Plain Nightjar Caprimulgus inornatus
  • Freckled Nightjar Caprimulgus tristigma
  • Long-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus climacurus
  • Pennant-winged Nightjar Macrodipteryx vexillarius
  • Standard-winged Nightjar Macrodipteryx longipennis

 

Swifts

Order: Apodiformes Family: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Mottled Spinetail Telacanthura ussheri
  • Black Spinetail Telacanthura melanopygia
  • Sabine's Spinetail Rhaphidura sabini
  • Cassin's Spinetail Neafrapus cassini
  • African Palm-Swift Cypsiurus parvus
  • Alpine Swift Tachymarptis melba
  • Mottled Swift Tachymarptis aequatorialis
  • Common Swift Apus apus
  • Pallid Swift Apus pallidus
  • African Swift Apus barbatus
  • Little Swift Apus affinis
  • Horus Swift Apus horus
  • White-rumped Swift Apus caffer
  • Bates's Swift Apus batesi

 

Mousebirds

Order: Coliiformes Family: Coliidae

The mousebirds are slender greyish or brown birds with soft, hairlike body feathers and very long thin tails. They are arboreal and scurry through the leaves like rodents in search of berries, fruit and buds. They are acrobatic, and can feed upside down. All species have strong claws and reversible outer toes. They also have crests and stubby bills. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Speckled Mousebird Colius striatus
  • Blue-naped Mousebird Urocolius macrourus

 

Trogons and Quetzals

Order: Trogoniformes Family: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Narina Trogon Apaloderma narina
  • Bare-cheeked Trogon Apaloderma aequatoriale
  • Bar-tailed Trogon Apaloderma vittatum

 

Kingfishers

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Shining-blue Kingfisher Alcedo quadribrachys
  • Malachite Kingfisher Alcedo cristata
  • White-bellied Kingfisher Alcedo leucogaster
  • African Pygmy-Kingfisher Ispidina picta
  • Dwarf Kingfisher Ispidina lecontei
  • Chocolate-backed Kingfisher Halcyon badia
  • Gray-headed Kingfisher Halcyon leucocephala
  • Woodland Kingfisher Halcyon senegalensis
  • Blue-breasted Kingfisher Halcyon malimbica
  • Striped Kingfisher Halcyon chelicuti
  • Giant Kingfisher Megaceryle maximus
  • Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis

 

Bee-eaters

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colorful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Black Bee-eater Merops gularis
  • Blue-headed Bee-eater Merops muelleri
  • Red-throated Bee-eater Merops bulocki
  • Little Bee-eater Merops pusillus
  • Blue-breasted Bee-eater Merops variegatus
  • Swallow-tailed Bee-eater Merops hirundineus
  • Black-headed Bee-eater Merops breweri
  • White-throated Bee-eater Merops albicollis
  • Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis
  • Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus
  • European Bee-eater Merops apiaster
  • Rosy Bee-eater Merops malimbicus
  • Northern Carmine Bee-eater Merops nubicus

 

Typical Rollers

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • European Roller Coracias garrulus
  • Abyssinian Roller Coracias abyssinica
  • Rufous-crowned Roller Coracias naevia
  • Blue-bellied Roller Coracias cyanogaster
  • Broad-billed Roller Eurystomus glaucurus
  • Blue-throated Roller Eurystomus gularis

 

Hoopoes

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • Hoopoe Upupa epops

 

Woodhoopoes

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Phoeniculidae

The woodhoopoes are related to the kingfishers, rollers and hoopoe. They most resemble the last species with their long curved bills, used for probing for insects, and short rounded wings. However, they differ in that they have metallic plumage, often blue, green or purple, and lack an erectile crest. There are 8 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Green Woodhoopoe Phoeniculus purpureus
  • White-headed Woodhoopoe Phoeniculus bollei
  • Forest Woodhoopoe Phoeniculus castaneiceps
  • Black Scimitar-bill Rhinopomastus aterrimus

 

Hornbills

Order: Coraciiformes Family: Bucerotidae

Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured. There are 57 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • White-crested Hornbill Tockus albocristatus
  • Black Dwarf Hornbill Tockus hartlaubi
  • Red-billed Dwarf Hornbill Tockus camurus
  • Red-billed Hornbill Tockus erythrorhynchus
  • African Pied Hornbill Tockus fasciatus
  • African Gray Hornbill Tockus nasutus
  • Piping Hornbill Ceratogymna fistulator
  • Black-and-white-casqued Hornbill Ceratogymna subcylindricus
  • Brown-cheeked Hornbill Ceratogymna cylindricus
  • White-thighed Hornbill Ceratogymna albotibialis
  • Black-casqued Hornbill Ceratogymna atrata
  • Yellow-casqued Hornbill Ceratogymna elata
  • Abyssinian Ground-Hornbill Bucorvus abyssinicus

 

Barbets

Order: Piciformes Family: Capitonidae

The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Naked-faced Barbet Gymnobucco calvus
  • Bristle-nosed Barbet Gymnobucco peli
  • Speckled Tinkerbird Pogoniulus scolopaceus
  • Western Tinkerbird Pogoniulus coryphaeus
  • Red-rumped Tinkerbird Pogoniulus atroflavus
  • Yellow-throated Tinkerbird Pogoniulus subsulphureus
  • Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird Pogoniulus bilineatus
  • Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird Pogoniulus chrysoconus
  • Yellow-spotted Barbet Buccanodon duchaillui
  • Hairy-breasted Barbet Tricholaema hirsuta
  • Vieillot's Barbet Lybius vieilloti
  • White-headed Barbet Lybius leucocephalus
  • Double-toothed Barbet Lybius bidentatus
  • Bearded Barbet Lybius dubius
  • Yellow-billed Barbet Trachyphonus purpuratus
  • Yellow-breasted Barbet Trachyphonus margaritatus

 

Honeyguides

Order: Piciformes Family: Indicatoridae

Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the behaviour of the Greater Honeyguide which leads large animals to bees' nests and then feeds on the wax once the animal has broken the nest open to get at the honey. There are 17 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Spotted Honeyguide Indicator maculatus
  • Greater Honeyguide Indicator indicator
  • Lesser Honeyguide Indicator minor
  • Thick-billed Honeyguide Indicator conirostris
  • Willcock's Honeyguide Indicator willcocksi
  • Least Honeyguide Indicator exilis
  • Lyre-tailed Honeyguide Melichneutes robustus
  • Cassin's Honeyguide Prodotiscus insignis
  • Wahlberg's Honeyguide Prodotiscus regulus

 

Woodpeckers and allies

Order: Piciformes Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla
  • Rufous-necked Wryneck Jynx ruficollis
  • African Piculet Sasia africana
  • Fine-spotted Woodpecker Campethera punctuligera
  • Golden-tailed Woodpecker Campethera abingoni
  • Green-backed Woodpecker Campethera cailliautii
  • Tullberg's Woodpecker Campethera tullbergi
  • Buff-spotted Woodpecker Campethera nivosa
  • Brown-eared Woodpecker Campethera caroli
  • Little Gray Woodpecker Dendropicos elachus
  • Speckle-breasted Woodpecker Dendropicos poecilolaemus
  • Cardinal Woodpecker Dendropicos fuscescens
  • Gabon Woodpecker Dendropicos gabonensis
  • Melancholy Woodpecker Dendropicos lugubris
  • Fire-bellied Woodpecker Dendropicos pyrrhogaster
  • Golden-crowned Woodpecker Dendropicos xantholophus
  • Elliot's Woodpecker Dendropicos elliotii
  • Gray Woodpecker Dendropicos goertae
  • Brown-backed Woodpecker Dendropicos obsoletus

 

Broadbills

Order: Passeriformes Family: Eurylaimidae

The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds that feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests. There are 15 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • African Broadbill Smithornis capensis
  • Rufous-sided Broadbill Smithornis rufolateralis

 

Pittas

Order: Passeriformes Family: Pittidae

Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards, and stocky, with fairly long, strong legs, short tails and stout bills. Many, but not all, are brightly coloured. They are spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrate prey which they find there. There are 32 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • African Pitta Pitta angolensis

 

Larks

Order: Passeriformes Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Singing Bushlark Mirafra cantillans
  • Rufous-naped Lark Mirafra africana
  • Flappet Lark Mirafra rufocinnamomea
  • Rusty Lark Mirafra rufa
  • Rufous-rumped Lark Pinarocorys erythropygia
  • Chestnut-backed Sparrow-Lark Eremopterix leucotis
  • Black-crowned Sparrow-Lark Eremopterix nigriceps (A)
  • Desert Lark Ammomanes deserti
  • Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla
  • Lesser Short-toed Lark Calandrella rufescens
  • Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea
  • Crested Lark Galerida cristata
  • Sun Lark Galerida modesta

 

Swallows and Martins

Order: Passeriformes Family: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Bank Swallow Riparia riparia
  • Plain Martin Riparia paludicola
  • Banded Martin Riparia cincta
  • Gray-rumped Swallow Pseudhirundo griseopyga
  • Rock Martin Ptyonoprogne fuligula
  • Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
  • Red-chested Swallow Hirundo lucida
  • Ethiopian Swallow Hirundo aethiopica
  • Wire-tailed Swallow Hirundo smithii
  • White-throated Blue Swallow Hirundo nigrita
  • Pied-winged Swallow Hirundo leucosoma
  • Lesser Striped-Swallow Cecropis abyssinica
  • Rufous-chested Swallow Cecropis semirufa
  • Mosque Swallow Cecropis senegalensis
  • Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica
  • Preuss's Swallow Petrochelidon preussi
  • Forest Swallow Petrochelidon fuliginosa
  • Common House-Martin Delichon urbica
  • Square-tailed Sawwing Psalidoprocne nitens
  • Mountain Sawwing Psalidoprocne fuliginosa
  • Blue Sawwing Psalidoprocne pristoptera
  • Fanti Sawwing Psalidoprocne obscura

 

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: Passeriformes Family: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • White Wagtail Motacilla alba
  • African Pied Wagtail Motacilla aguimp
  • Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava
  • Mountain Wagtail Motacilla clara
  • Yellow-throated Longclaw Macronyx croceus
  • Plain-backed Pipit Anthus leucophrys
  • African Pipit Anthus cinnamomeus
  • Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris
  • Long-billed Pipit Anthus similis
  • Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis
  • Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus

 

Cuckoo-shrikes

Order: Passeriformes Family: Campephagidae

The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • White-breasted Cuckoo-shrike Coracina pectoralis
  • Blue Cuckoo-shrike Coracina azurea
  • Gray Cuckoo-shrike Coracina caesia
  • Petit's Cuckoo-shrike Campephaga petiti
  • Red-shouldered Cuckoo-shrike Campephaga phoenicea
  • Purple-throated Cuckoo-shrike Campephaga quiscalina
  • Ghana Cuckoo-shrike Campephaga lobata
  • Oriole Cuckoo-shrike Campephaga oriolina

 

Bulbuls

Order: Passeriformes Family: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throat or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests. There are 130 species worldwide and 31 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Common Bulbul Pycnonotus barbatus
  • Cameroon Mountain Greenbul Andropadus montanus
  • Little Greenbul Andropadus virens
  • Gray Greenbul Andropadus gracilis
  • Ansorge's Greenbul Andropadus ansorgei
  • Plain Greenbul Andropadus curvirostris
  • Slender-billed Greenbul Andropadus gracilirostris
  • Yellow-whiskered Bulbul Andropadus latirostris
  • Western Mountain-Greenbul Andropadus tephrolaemus
  • Golden Greenbul Calyptocichla serina
  • Honeyguide Greenbul Baeopogon indicator
  • Sjostedt's Greenbul Baeopogon clamans
  • Spotted Greenbul Ixonotus guttatus
  • Simple Greenbul Chlorocichla simplex
  • Yellow-throated Greenbul Chlorocichla flavicollis
  • Swamp Greenbul Thescelocichla leucopleura
  • Leaf-love Phyllastrephus scandens
  • Baumann's Greenbul Phyllastrephus baumanni
  • Cameroon Olive-Greenbul Phyllastrephus poensis
  • Gray-headed Greenbul Phyllastrephus poliocephalus
  • White-throated Greenbul Phyllastrephus albigularis
  • Icterine Greenbul Phyllastrephus icterinus
  • Common Bristlebill Bleda syndactyla
  • Gray-headed Bristlebill Bleda canicapilla
  • Yellow-spotted Nicator Nicator chloris
  • Red-tailed Greenbul Criniger calurus
  • Western Bearded-Greenbul Criniger barbatus
  • Eastern Bearded-Greenbul Criniger chloronotus
  • Yellow-bearded Greenbul Criniger olivaceus
  • White-bearded Greenbul Criniger ndussumensis
  • Lesser Bristlebill Bleda notata

 

Thrushes and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Rufous Flycatcher-Thrush Neocossyphus fraseri
  • Finsch's Flycatcher-Thrush Neocossyphus finschii
  • White-tailed Ant-Thrush Neocossyphus poensis
  • Rufous-tailed Rock-Thrush Monticola saxatilis
  • Blue Rock-Thrush Monticola solitarius
  • Crossley's Ground-Thrush Zoothera crossleyi
  • Black-eared Ground-Thrush Zoothera cameronensis
  • Gray Ground-Thrush Zoothera princei
  • Olive Thrush Turdus olivaceus
  • African Thrush Turdus pelios
  • Brown-chested Alethe Alethe poliocephala

 

Cisticolas and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 34 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Red-faced Cisticola Cisticola erythrops
  • Singing Cisticola Cisticola cantans
  • Whistling Cisticola Cisticola lateralis
  • Chattering Cisticola Cisticola anonymus
  • Chubb's Cisticola Cisticola chubbi
  • Rock-loving Cisticola Cisticola aberrans
  • Red-pate Cisticola Cisticola ruficeps
  • Dorst's Cisticola Cisticola dorsti
  • Winding Cisticola Cisticola galactotes
  • Stout Cisticola Cisticola robustus
  • Croaking Cisticola Cisticola natalensis
  • Siffling Cisticola Cisticola brachypterus
  • Rufous Cisticola Cisticola rufus
  • Foxy Cisticola Cisticola troglodytes
  • Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis
  • Desert Cisticola Cisticola aridulus
  • Black-necked Cisticola Cisticola eximius
  • Tawny-flanked Prinia Prinia subflava
  • River Prinia Prinia fluviatilis
  • White-chinned Prinia Prinia leucopogon
  • Banded Prinia Prinia bairdii
  • Red-winged Prinia Prinia erythroptera
  • Green Longtail Urolais epichlora
  • Cricket Longtail Spiloptila clamans
  • Black-collared Apalis Apalis pulchra
  • Black-capped Apalis Apalis nigriceps
  • Black-throated Apalis Apalis jacksoni
  • Yellow-breasted Apalis Apalis flavida
  • Buff-throated Apalis Apalis rufogularis
  • Gray Apalis Apalis cinerea
  • Oriole Warbler Hypergerus atriceps
  • Green-backed Camaroptera Camaroptera brachyura
  • Yellow-browed Camaroptera Camaroptera superciliaris
  • Olive-green Camaroptera Camaroptera chloronota

 

Old World warblers

Order: Passeriformes Family: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 48 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • African Bush-Warbler Bradypterus baboecala
  • Bangwa Scrub-Warbler Bradypterus bangwaensis
  • Cinnamon Bracken-Warbler Bradypterus cinnamomeus
  • Moustached Grass-Warbler Melocichla mentalis
  • Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia
  • Savi's Warbler Locustella luscinioides
  • Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
  • Eurasian Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus
  • African Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus
  • Marsh Warbler Acrocephalus palustris
  • Great Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus
  • Greater Swamp-Warbler Acrocephalus rufescens
  • Lesser Swamp-Warbler Acrocephalus gracilirostris
  • Eastern Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pallida
  • Western Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais opaca
  • Olive-tree Warbler Hippolais olivetorum
  • Melodious Warbler Hippolais polyglotta
  • Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina
  • African Yellow Warbler Chloropeta natalensis
  • Buff-bellied Warbler Phyllolais pulchella
  • White-tailed Warbler Poliolais lopezi
  • Yellow-bellied Eremomela Eremomela icteropygialis
  • Senegal Eremomela Eremomela pusilla
  • Rufous-crowned Eremomela Eremomela badiceps
  • Green Crombec Sylvietta virens
  • Lemon-bellied Crombec Sylvietta denti
  • Northern Crombec Sylvietta brachyura
  • Kemp's Longbill Macrosphenus kempi
  • Yellow Longbill Macrosphenus flavicans
  • Gray Longbill Macrosphenus concolor
  • Green Hylia Hylia prasina
  • Black-capped Woodland-Warbler Phylloscopus herberti
  • Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus
  • Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita
  • Western Bonelli's Warbler Phylloscopus bonelli
  • Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix
  • Yellow-bellied Hyliota Hyliota flavigaster
  • Violet-backed Hyliota Hyliota violacea
  • Fan-tailed Grassbird Schoenicola brevirostris
  • Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla
  • Garden Warbler Sylvia borin
  • Greater Whitethroat Sylvia communis
  • Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca
  • African Desert Warbler Sylvia deserti
  • Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria
  • Western Orphean Warbler Sylvia hortensis
  • Subalpine Warbler Sylvia cantillans
  • Menetries's Warbler Sylvia mystacea

 

Old World flycatchers

Order: Passeriformes Family: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 53 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Pale Flycatcher Bradornis pallidus
  • Northern Black-Flycatcher Melaenornis edolioides
  • African Forest-Flycatcher Fraseria ocreata
  • White-browed Forest-Flycatcher Fraseria cinerascens
  • Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata
  • Gambaga Flycatcher Muscicapa gambagae
  • Ussher's Flycatcher Muscicapa ussheri
  • Sooty Flycatcher Muscicapa infuscata
  • Swamp Flycatcher Muscicapa aquatica
  • Olivaceous Flycatcher Muscicapa olivascens
  • African Dusky Flycatcher Muscicapa adusta
  • Little Gray Flycatcher Muscicapa epulata
  • Yellow-footed Flycatcher Muscicapa sethsmithi
  • Dusky-blue Flycatcher Muscicapa comitata
  • Tessmann's Flycatcher Muscicapa tessmanni
  • Cassin's Flycatcher Muscicapa cassini
  • Ashy Flycatcher Muscicapa caerulescens
  • Gray-throated Tit-Flycatcher Myioparus griseigularis
  • Gray Tit-Flycatcher Myioparus plumbeus
  • European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca
  • Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis
  • Semicollared Flycatcher Ficedula semitorquata
  • Forest Robin Stiphrornis erythrothorax
  • Bocage's Akalat Sheppardia bocagei
  • Thrush Nightingale Luscinia luscinia
  • Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos
  • Bluethroat Luscinia svecica
  • White-bellied Robin-Chat Cossyphicula roberti
  • Mountain Robin-Chat Cossypha isabellae
  • Blue-shouldered Robin-Chat Cossypha cyanocampter
  • Gray-winged Robin-Chat Cossypha polioptera
  • White-browed Robin-Chat Cossypha heuglini
  • Red-capped Robin-Chat Cossypha natalensis
  • Snowy-crowned Robin-Chat Cossypha niveicapilla
  • White-crowned Robin-Chat Cossypha albicapilla
  • Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin Cercotrichas galactotes
  • African Scrub-Robin Cercotrichas minor
  • Black Scrub-Robin Cercotrichas podobe
  • Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus
  • Whinchat Saxicola rubetra
  • European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola
  • African Stonechat Saxicola torquata
  • White-tailed Wheatear Oenanthe leucopyga
  • Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe
  • Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica
  • Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti
  • Isabelline Wheatear Oenanthe isabellina
  • Heuglin's Wheatear Oenanthe heuglini
  • Familiar Chat Cercomela familiaris
  • Northern Anteater-Chat Myrmecocichla aethiops
  • Sooty Chat Myrmecocichla nigra
  • White-fronted Black-Chat Myrmecocichla albifrons
  • Mocking Cliff-Chat Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris

 

Wattle-eyes

Order: Passeriformes Family: Platysteiridae

The wattle-eyes or puffback flycatchers are small stout passerine birds of the African tropics. They get their name from the brightly coloured fleshy eye decorations found in most species in this group. There are 31 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • African Shrike-flycatcher Megabyas flammulatus
  • Black-and-white Shrike-flycatcher Bias musicus
  • Brown-throated Wattle-eye Platysteira cyanea
  • Chestnut Wattle-eye Platysteira castanea
  • White-spotted Wattle-eye Platysteira tonsa
  • Red-cheeked Wattle-eye Platysteira blissetti
  • Yellow-bellied Wattle-eye Platysteira concreta
  • Senegal Batis Batis senegalensis
  • Gray-headed Batis Batis orientalis
  • Fernando Po Batis Batis poensis
  • West African Batis Batis occulta

 

Monarch flycatchers

Order: Passeriformes Family: Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Chestnut-capped Flycatcher Erythrocercus mccallii
  • African Blue-Flycatcher Elminia longicauda
  • Dusky Crested-Flycatcher Elminia nigromitrata
  • White-bellied Crested-Flycatcher Elminia albiventris
  • Blue-headed Crested-Flycatcher Trochocercus nitens
  • Black-headed Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone rufiventer
  • African Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone viridis

 

Rockfowl

Order: Passeriformes Family: Picathartidae

The rockfowl are lanky birds with crow-like bills, long neck, tail and legs, and strong feet adapted to terrestrial feeding. They are similar in size and structure to the completely unrelated roadrunners, but they hop rather than walk. They also have brightly coloured unfeathered heads. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • Gray-necked Rockfowl Picathartes oreas

 

Babblers

Order: Passeriformes Family: Timaliidae

The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Blackcap Illadopsis Illadopsis cleaveri
  • Puvel's Illadopsis Illadopsis puveli
  • Pale-breasted Illadopsis Illadopsis rufipennis
  • Brown Illadopsis Illadopsis fulvescens
  • African Hill Babbler Illadopsis abyssinica
  • Gray-chested Illadopsis Kakamega poliothorax
  • Blackcap Babbler Turdoides reinwardtii
  • Brown Babbler Turdoides plebejus
  • White-throated Mountain-Babbler Kupeornis gilberti
  • Capuchin Babbler Phyllanthus atripennis

 

Chickadees and Titmice

Order: Passeriformes Family: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • White-shouldered Black-Tit Melaniparus guineensis
  • White-bellied Tit Melaniparus albiventris

 

Treecreepers

Order: Passeriformes Family: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • Spotted Creeper Salpornis spilonotus

 

Penduline tits

Order: Passeriformes Family: Remizidae

The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds, related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There are 13 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Sennar Penduline-Tit Anthoscopus punctifrons
  • Yellow Penduline-Tit Anthoscopus parvulus
  • Forest Penduline-Tit Anthoscopus flavifrons
  • Tit-hylia Pholidornis rushiae

 

Sunbirds and Spiderhunters

Order: Passeriformes Family: Nectariniidae

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed. There are 131 species worldwide and 28 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Scarlet-tufted Sunbird Deleornis fraseri
  • Mouse-brown Sunbird Anthreptes gabonicus
  • Western Violet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes longuemarei
  • Violet-tailed Sunbird Anthreptes aurantium
  • Little Green Sunbird Anthreptes seimundi
  • Green Sunbird Anthreptes rectirostris
  • Collared Sunbird Hedydipna collaris
  • Pygmy Sunbird Hedydipna platura
  • Reichenbach's Sunbird Anabathmis reichenbachii
  • Green-headed Sunbird Cyanomitra verticalis
  • Blue-throated Brown Sunbird Cyanomitra cyanolaema
  • Cameroon Sunbird Cyanomitra oritis
  • Eastern Olive-Sunbird Cyanomitra olivacea
  • Buff-throated Sunbird Chalcomitra adelberti
  • Carmelite Sunbird Chalcomitra fuliginosa
  • Green-throated Sunbird Chalcomitra rubescens
  • Scarlet-chested Sunbird Chalcomitra senegalensis
  • Olive-bellied Sunbird Cinnyris chloropygius
  • Tiny Sunbird Cinnyris minullus
  • Northern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris preussi
  • Beautiful Sunbird Cinnyris pulchellus
  • Orange-tufted Sunbird Cinnyris bouvieri
  • Splendid Sunbird Cinnyris coccinigaster
  • Johanna's Sunbird Cinnyris johannae
  • Superb Sunbird Cinnyris superbus
  • Variable Sunbird Cinnyris venustus
  • Bates's Sunbird Cinnyris batesi
  • Copper Sunbird Cinnyris cupreus

 

White-eyes

Order: Passeriformes Family: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small and are mostly of undistinguished appearance, the plumage above being generally either some dull color like greenish olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests many species have a white ring around the eyes. There are 96 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • African Yellow White-eye Zosterops senegalensis

 

Old World Orioles

Order: Passeriformes Family: Oriolidae

The Old World Orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus
  • African Golden Oriole Oriolus auratus
  • Western Black-headed Oriole Oriolus brachyrhynchus
  • Black-winged Oriole Oriolus nigripennis

 

Shrikes

Order: Passeriformes Family: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio
  • Rufous-tailed Shrike Lanius isabellinus
  • Emin's Shrike Lanius gubernator
  • Southern Gray Shrike Lanius meridionalis
  • Lesser Gray Shrike Lanius minor
  • Gray-backed Fiscal Lanius excubitoroides
  • Mackinnon's Shrike Lanius mackinnoni
  • Common Fiscal Lanius collaris
  • Masked Shrike Lanius nubicus
  • Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator
  • Yellow-billed Shrike Corvinella corvina

 

Bushshrikes and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Malaconotidae

Bushshrikes are similar in habits to shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch on a bush. Although similar in build to the shrikes, these tend to be either colourful species or largely black; some species are quite secretive. There are 46 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Brubru Nilaus afer
  • Northern Puffback Dryoscopus gambensis
  • Red-eyed Puffback Dryoscopus senegalensis
  • Pink-footed Puffback Dryoscopus angolensis
  • Large-billed Puffback Dryoscopus sabini
  • Marsh Tchagra Tchagra minuta
  • Black-crowned Tchagra Tchagra senegala
  • Brown-crowned Tchagra Tchagra australis
  • Luehder's Bushshrike Laniarius luehderi
  • Tropical Boubou Laniarius aethiopicus
  • Common Gonolek Laniarius barbarus
  • Black-headed Gonolek Laniarius erythrogaster
  • Yellow-breasted Boubou Laniarius atroflavus
  • Sooty Boubou Laniarius leucorhynchus
  • Fuelleborn's Boubou Laniarius fuelleborni
  • Mountain Sooty Boubou Laniarius poensis
  • Sulphur-breasted Bushshrike Telophorus sulfureopectus
  • Many-colored Bushshrike Telophorus multicolor
  • Fiery-breasted Bushshrike Malaconotus cruentus
  • Green-breasted Bushshrike Malaconotus gladiator
  • Gray-headed Bushshrike Malaconotus blanchoti

 

Helmetshrikes

Order: Passeriformes Family: Prionopidae

The helmetshrikes are similar in build to the shrikes, but tend to be colourful species with distinctive crests or other head ornaments, such as wattles, from which they get their name. There are 12 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • White Helmetshrike Prionops plumatus
  • Chestnut-bellied Helmetshrike Prionops caniceps

 

Drongos

Order: Passeriformes Family: Dicruridae

The drongos are mostly are black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright whilst perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 24 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Square-tailed Drongo Dicrurus ludwigii
  • Shining Drongo Dicrurus atripennis
  • Fork-tailed Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis
  • Velvet-mantled Drongo Dicrurus modestus

 

Crows, Jays, Ravens and Magpies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Piapiac Ptilostomus afer
  • Pied Crow Corvus albus
  • Brown-necked Raven Corvus ruficollis
  • Fan-tailed Raven Corvus rhipidurus

 

Starlings

Order: Passeriformes Family: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Greater Blue-eared Glossy-Starling Lamprotornis chalybaeus
  • Lesser Blue-eared Glossy-Starling Lamprotornis chloropterus
  • Bronze-tailed Glossy-Starling Lamprotornis chalcurus
  • Splendid Glossy-Starling Lamprotornis splendidus
  • Purple Glossy-Starling Lamprotornis purpureus
  • Long-tailed Glossy-Starling Lamprotornis caudatus
  • Chestnut-bellied Starling Lamprotornis pulcher
  • Purple-headed Glossy-Starling Lamprotornis purpureiceps
  • Violet-backed Starling Cinnyricinclus leucogaster
  • Chestnut-winged Starling Onychognathus fulgidus
  • Waller's Starling Onychognathus walleri
  • Neumann's Starling Onychognathus neumanni
  • Narrow-tailed Starling Poeoptera lugubris
  • Yellow-billed Oxpecker Buphagus africanus

 

Weavers and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 42 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • White-billed Buffalo-Weaver Bubalornis albirostris
  • Speckle-fronted Weaver Sporopipes frontalis
  • Chestnut-crowned Sparrow-Weaver Plocepasser superciliosus
  • Bannerman's Weaver Ploceus bannermani
  • Baglafecht Weaver Ploceus baglafecht
  • Slender-billed Weaver Ploceus pelzelni
  • Little Weaver Ploceus luteolus
  • Spectacled Weaver Ploceus ocularis
  • Black-necked Weaver Ploceus nigricollis
  • Black-billed Weaver Ploceus melanogaster
  • Orange Weaver Ploceus aurantius
  • Heuglin's Masked-Weaver Ploceus heuglini
  • Vitelline Masked-Weaver Ploceus vitellinus
  • Village Weaver Ploceus cucullatus
  • Vieillot's Weaver Ploceus nigerrimus
  • Black-headed Weaver Ploceus melanocephalus
  • Yellow-mantled Weaver Ploceus tricolor
  • Maxwell's Black Weaver Ploceus albinucha
  • Forest Weaver Ploceus bicolor
  • Preuss's Weaver Ploceus preussi
  • Brown-capped Weaver Ploceus insignis
  • Compact Weaver Pachyphantes superciliosus
  • Black-throated Malimbe Malimbus cassini
  • Rachel's Malimbe Malimbus racheliae
  • Red-vented Malimbe Malimbus scutatus
  • Ibadan Malimbe Malimbus ibadanensis (E)
  • Red-bellied Malimbe Malimbus erythrogaster
  • Gray's Malimbe Malimbus nitens
  • Crested Malimbe Malimbus malimbicus
  • Red-headed Malimbe Malimbus rubricollis
  • Red-headed Weaver Anaplectes rubriceps
  • Red-headed Quelea Quelea erythrops
  • Red-billed Quelea Quelea quelea
  • Yellow-crowned Bishop Euplectes afer
  • Black-winged Bishop Euplectes hordeaceus
  • Orange Bishop Euplectes franciscanus
  • Yellow Bishop Euplectes capensis
  • Fan-tailed Widowbird Euplectes axillaris
  • Yellow-shouldered Widowbird Euplectes macrourus
  • Red-collared Widowbird Euplectes ardens
  • Marsh Widowbird Euplectes hartlaubi
  • Grosbeak Weaver Amblyospiza albifrons

 

Waxbills and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 40 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Woodhouse's Antpecker Parmoptila woodhousei
  • White-breasted Negrofinch Nigrita fusconota
  • Chestnut-breasted Negrofinch Nigrita bicolor
  • Pale-fronted Negrofinch Nigrita luteifrons
  • Gray-headed Negrofinch Nigrita canicapilla
  • Fernando Po Oliveback Nesocharis shelleyi
  • Gray-headed Oliveback Nesocharis capistrata
  • Red-winged Pytilia Pytilia phoenicoptera
  • Green-winged Pytilia Pytilia melba
  • Red-faced Pytilia Pytilia hypogrammica
  • Green-backed Twinspot Mandingoa nitidula
  • Red-faced Crimson-wing Cryptospiza reichenovii
  • Black-bellied Seedcracker Pyrenestes ostrinus
  • Western Bluebill Spermophaga haematina
  • Brown Twinspot Clytospiza monteiri
  • Dybowski's Twinspot Euschistospiza dybowskii
  • Bar-breasted Firefinch Lagonosticta rufopicta
  • Red-billed Firefinch Lagonosticta senegala
  • Black-bellied Firefinch Lagonosticta rara
  • African Firefinch Lagonosticta rubricata
  • Rock Firefinch Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis (E)
  • Black-faced Firefinch Lagonosticta larvata
  • Reichenow's Firefinch Lagonosticta umbrinodorsalis
  • Red-cheeked Cordonbleu Uraeginthus bengalus
  • Lavender Waxbill Estrilda caerulescens
  • Fawn-breasted Waxbill Estrilda paludicola
  • Anambra Waxbill Estrilda poliopareia (E)
  • Orange-cheeked Waxbill Estrilda melpoda
  • Black-rumped Waxbill Estrilda troglodytes
  • Common Waxbill Estrilda astrild
  • Black-crowned Waxbill Estrilda nonnula
  • Black-headed Waxbill Estrilda atricapilla
  • Zebra Waxbill Sporaeginthus subflavus
  • Black-faced Quailfinch Ortygospiza atricollis
  • Locustfinch Paludipasser locustella (A)
  • African Silverbill Euodice cantans
  • Bronze Mannikin Spermestes cucullatus
  • Black-and-white Mannikin Spermestes bicolor
  • Magpie Mannikin Spermestes fringilloides
  • Cut-throat Amadina fasciata

 

Indigobirds

Order: Passeriformes Family: Viduidae

The indigobirds are finch-like species which usually have black or indigo predominating in their plumage. All are brood parasites, which lay their eggs in the nests of estrildid finch species. There are 20 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Village Indigobird Vidua chalybeata
  • Jambandu Indigobird Vidua raricola
  • Baka Indigobird Vidua larvaticola
  • Jos Plateau Indigobird Vidua maryae (E)
  • Quailfinch Indigobird Vidua nigeriae
  • Variable Indigobird Vidua funerea
  • Pale-winged Indigobird Vidua wilsoni
  • Cameroon Indigobird Vidua camerunensis
  • Pin-tailed Whydah Vidua macroura
  • Long-tailed Paradise-Whydah Vidua interjecta
  • Northern Paradise-Whydah Vidua orientalis

 

Weavers and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Nigeria.

  • Parasitic Weaver Anomalospiza imberbis

 

Buntings, Sparrows, Seedeaters and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 5 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana
  • Cinnamon-breasted Bunting Emberiza tahapisi
  • Golden-breasted Bunting Emberiza flaviventris
  • Brown-rumped Bunting Emberiza affinis
  • Cabanis's Bunting Emberiza cabanisi

 

Siskins, Crossbills and allies

Order: Passeriformes Family: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Oriole Finch Linurgus olivaceus
  • White-rumped Seedeater Serinus leucopygius
  • Yellow-fronted Canary Serinus mozambicus
  • Streaky-headed Seedeater Serinus gularis
  • Thick-billed Seedeater Serinus burtoni
  • Trumpeter Finch Bucanetes githaginea

 

Sparrows

Order: Passeriformes Family: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Nigeria.

  • Gray-headed Sparrow Passer griseus
  • Desert Sparrow Passer simplex
  • Sudan Golden-Sparrow Passer luteus
  • Yellow-spotted Petronia Petronia pyrgita
  • Bush Petronia Petronia dentata

 

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