Early life and career
Kabera, an ethnic Tutsi, was born in Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).1 Even though he was still living in the DRC when the Rwandan Genocide started in April of 1994, Kabera tells of his family members who lived in Rwanda at the time, 32 of them dying in the violence.21 This inspired him to make a 2001 feature film about the genocide titled 100 Days and a 2004 documentary titled Keepers of Memory in which he interviewed both victims and perpetrators of the attrocities.13 100 Days, which Kabera made in collaboration with the British film-maker Nick Hughes, was the first film shot in Rwanda after the genocide and it was also the first feature film about the genocide.43 The film employed no professional actors, rather the filmmakers used actual Tutsi and Hutu survivors to act out the script, and was shot on location at the actual scenes where acts of genocide occurred.23
Today, Kabera is the founder and president of the Rwanda Cinema Center, an organization that aims to promote the country's film industry.54 Kabera initially set up the Center as an organization that would train new film-makers but, since 2005, the center has been better known for organizing the annual Rwanda Film Festival.543 The Rwanda Film Festival, nicknamed "Hillywood" due to Rwanda's nickname of "Land of a Thousand Hills", is a travelling festival. Due to Kabera's desire to show the films to as large of an audience as possible, the festival is held not only in the capital of Kigali but the films, especially ones made by Rwandan film-makers, are also shown on largeinflatable screensin rural areas throughout the country.3 More recently, Kabera has stated that the festival will make a move away from focusing only on the issue of the genocide; rather "other social issues" of modern Rwanda will be explored.6Kabera says that he would like to make a comedy.3
Partly to help further promote the film festival, Kabera has started a project to build Rwanda's first purpose-built movie theater in Kigali. The theater has been under construction since at least 2007 but progress is slow due to lack of funds necessary to complete the project.3
|2004||Keepers of Memory||Screenwriter, director, producer|
|2008||Iseta: Behind the Roadblock||Co-producer|
- a b c Rwandan Genocide: 12 Years Later, CNN, April 8, 2006. Accessed February 26, 2009.
- a b On The Media: Transcript of "100 Days in Rwanda", National Public Radio, November 22, 2002. Accessed February 26, 2009.
- a b c d e f g Bloomfield, Steve. Welcome to Hillywood: how Rwanda's film industry emerged from genocide's shadow, The Independent, August 30, 2007. Accessed February 26, 2009.
- a b c Kisambira, Timothy. Rwanda: The Golden Experience of the Silver Screen, AllAfrica.com, April 6, 2008. Accessed February 26, 2009.
- a b Gathoni, Peninnah. Fifth Film Festival to be held in June, The New Times, 2009. Accessed February 26, 2009.
- Don't mention the genocide: Rwanda film industry moves on, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, March 28, 2008. Accessed February 26, 2009.
- Eric Kabera at the Internet Movie Database
- Official website
- Interview with Kabera on Behind the Roadblock for Radio France Internationale
The arcade game Pac-Land was based entirely on the cartoon, and Pac-Man 2: The New Adventures drew significant influence from it as well. Also, the Tengen release of the original Pac-Man arcade game for the Nintendo Entertainment System features box art based on the cartoon.
Pac-Man follows the adventures of the title character Pac-Man (voiced by Marty Ingels), his wife Mrs. Pepper Pac-Man (voiced by Barbara Minkus), and their child Pac-Baby (voiced by Russi Taylor). They also had two pets, Chomp-Chomp the Dog (voiced by Frank Welker) & Sour Puss the Cat (voiced by Peter Cullen). The family lives in Pac-Land, a place in which the geography and architecture seem to revolve primarily around spheres and sphere-like shapes.
Most episodes of the series center around the ongoing battle between the Pac family and their only known enemies, the Ghost Monsters: Blinky (Chuck McCann), Pinky (Chuck McCann), Inky (Barry Gordon), Clyde (Neil Ross), and Sue (Susan Silo). They work for Mezmaron (Allan Lurie), a mysterious figure bearing a likeness to Darth Vader, whose sole mission is to locate and control the source of "Power Pellets", which serve as the primary food and power source for the city, and also as the deus ex machina in virtually every episode.
For whatever reason, nearly everything in Pac-Land takes the shape of a sphere (or is round, at the very least). Everything from natural backgrounds to houses to cars to animals and even (or especially) the people assume the form of a ball.
Another recurring theme is the common use of "Pac-" as a prefix for verbs and famous or common existing nouns (an example: Pac-Hollywood, a town famous for its film studios). This is reminiscent of The Smurfs or The Snorks, both animated series which replaced or altered several existing words with "Smurf" or "Snork," respectively.(In fact, the series was referred to as "Pac-Smurfs" around the Hanna-Barbera studio.citation needed) Pac-man himself is often referred to the nickname "Packy" by Pepper. In a typical episode, the ghost-monsters are eaten in the beginning, and their eyes fly back to Mezmeron's lava-lair closet to get new ghost suits and plot something evil.
Power Pellets (which were previously called "power pills", or "energizers") seem to be the focal point of nearly every episode, as Mezmeron and the Ghost-Monsters are intent upon finding them. In actuality, while Power Pellets are plentiful and easy to find around Pac-Land, Mezmeron and the Ghost-Monsters' ultimate goal is to control all power pellets by taking over the Power Pellet Forest (usually referred to as simply the "Power Forest") where power pellets are grown on trees. Although their primary purpose appears to be enabling the Pac-people to "chomp" Ghost-Monsters, Power Pellets also seem to be the staple of their diet (as well as the city's source of power in general); Pac-Baby is fed power pellet milk for example.
It's interesting to note that when Pac-Man (or any other Pac-person, or Pac-animal) eats a power pellet, instead of turning blue (as in the video game series) the "Ghost-Monsters" (known as simply "monsters" in the original arcade game, and as simply "ghosts" in the Atari 2600 version) turn "purple with panic" after which they make an obvious note of their situation ("P-P-P-P-P-Pac Power!").
Other changes from the video games include the following:
- Super Pac-Man (voiced by Lorenzo Music) is portrayed as a separate character who lives in a parallel dimension called the Super Time Warp Space Home (and is called "Super-Pac").
- Clyde is the 'head' ghost-monster, instead of Blinky (who is the first one out of the monster pen at the beginning of each level in the games); this is probably a reference to "Clyde" of the Ant Hill Mob from The Perils of Penelope Pitstop, another Hanna-Barbera series. Considering the gangster persona applied to Clyde and somewhat to Sue, Clyde may have been made the leader as a reference to Bonnie and Clyde (with Sue fitting the bill for Bonnie).
- Ms. Pac-Man is called "Pepper".
- When the ghosts catch up to Pac-Man in the early episodes, they trap him and "eat his skeleton", leaving him a disheveled version of himself. It was a pretty creepy visual for the predominantly young audience, and in future episodes, Pac-Man just appeared beat up (Or in a weakened state) rather than internally gobbled.
- Sue (the only female ghost-monster) is now just a separate character and the fifth ghost monster. In Ms. Pac-Man, Sue replaced Clyde in an attempt to give Ms. Pac-Man a rival of her own. When she was around, Pepper was usually the one who chomped the Sue. Even though in the cartoon Sue is purple, in the arcade game she is orange, the same color Clyde is in the Pac-Man game.
- The ghosts all wear hats or (in Sue's case) earrings. (Possibly so the animators/painters could tell the ghosts apart)
- Pinky and Inky had abilities the other ghost monsters did not. Pinky was able to alter his shape. For instance he changed into aninflatablerubber raft to travel on a body of water. Inky was able to produce many supplies and items from his clothing. Inky is even able to retrieve items larger than himself. An example of this is when he took a very long ladder out of his clothing to climb a wall to escape from Pac-Man. This ability is similar to Hammerspace. Each of the ghosts have a distinct personality. Aside from Clyde and Sue's afforementioned personalities, Inky is the stupid one, Blinky is the cowardly one and Pinky is the tough one.
- The ghost monsters have a child couson named "Dinky". Dinky and Pac-Baby would get along, not like the adults. Dinky appeared in two episodes.
- In the second season, besides Super-Pac, Pac-Man's teenage cousin, P.J. (Darryl Hickman), appears semi-regularly on the show.
Pac-Man aired on ABC Saturday Morning in the following formats:
- The Pac-Man/Little Rascals/Richie Rich Show (September 25, 1982-September 3, 1983)
- The Pac-Man/Rubik, the Amazing Cube Hour (September 10, 1983-September 1, 1984)
Since the original run, reruns have turned up on the USA Cartoon Express in the 1980s and Boomerang in 2005. The series is also available for purchase on the Xbox Live Marketplace for 160 Microsoft Points per episode.
- Presidential Pac Nappers - Mezmaron orders the Ghost Monsters to kidnap the Pac-President in order to get Pac-Man to lead them to the Power Pellet Forest.
- Hocus Pocus Pac Man -
- The Great Pac Quake -
- Picnic in Pac Land - Pac-Man and his family go for a picnic. The Ghosts are also on a picnic and plot to chomp Pac-Man with each plan going horribly awry.
- South Paw Packy -
- Pac Baby Panic -
- The Pac Man in the Moon -
- Neander Pac Man - Pac-Man reads Pac-Baby a story about their prehistoric ancestors.
- Super Ghosts -
- Invasion of the Pac Pups -
- Trick or Chomp -
- Pacula - Mezmeron transforms a bat into the vampiric Count Pacula in a plot to get the citizens of Pac-Land to hand over the directions to the Power Pellet Forest.
- Once Upon a Chomp -
- Journey to the Center of Pac Land -
- Chomp Out at the Okay Corral - While taking a vacation out west, the ghost monsters along with their bratty cousin, Dinky, try to ruin the Pac-family vacation.
- The Bionic Pac Women -
- The Great Power Pellet Robbery -
- Back Packin' Packy -
- The Abominable Pac Man -
- Sir Chomp A Lot -
- Goo Goo at the Zoo -
- Attack of the Pac Mummy -
- A Bad Case of the Chomps -
- The Day the Forest Disappeared -
- Nighty Nightmares -
- The Pac-Mummy -
- Here's Super-Pac! - Super-Pac arrives in Pac-Land and saves Pac-Man and Mrs. Pac-Man from a Ghost Monster attack. Mrs. Pac-Man then invites Super-Pac to lunch as Mezmeron creates a giant robotic Ghost Monster.
- Hey, Hey, Hey...It's P.J. -
- The Super-Pac Bowl -
- Journey into the Pac-Past -
- The Old Pac-Man and the Sea -
- Public Pac-Enemy No. 1 -
- The Genie of Pacdad -
- Computer Packy -
- The Greatest Show in Pac-Land - The ghost monsters take their cousin Dinky to the circus for his birthday, where they encounter the Pac-family.
- Pac-A-Lympics -
- Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Pac-Man -
- Around the World in 80 Chomps -
- Super-Pac vs. Pac-Ape - An organ grinder's Pac-Monkey eats super-powered Power Pellets and grows to giant size. Now Pac-Man and Super-Pac must stop the giant Pac-Monkey before it wrecks Pac-Land
- P.J. Goes Pac-Hollywood -
- Pac-Van-Winkle -
- Happy Pacs-Giving -
Pac-Man Halloween Special
|This section requires expansion.|
Prime-time special that aired on ABC. It's Baby Pac-Man's first Halloween but the ghost monsters plan to capture Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man (Pepper). It's up to Baby Pac-Man to save the day. This special only aired once.
Christmas Comes to Pac-Land
In this Christmas special, Pac-Man and family help Santa Claus (Peter Cullen) after crash-landing on Pac-Land (after the reindeer were startled by floating eyes of the Ghost Monsters after Pac-Man, Ms. Pac-Man and Pac-Baby munched them). Mezmeron was the only character from the cartoon that is not in the special (although his castle, which is covered in snow appears). It is shown every December on the Boomerang Christmas party.
- Jodi Carlisle -
- Peter Cullen - Sour Puss the Cat
- Barry Gordon - Inky
- Darryl Hickman - P.J.
- Marty Ingels - Pac-Man
- Paul Kirby -
- Allan Lurie - Mezmaron
- Chuck McCann - Blinky, Pinky
- Barbara Minkus - Mrs. Pepper Pac-Man
- Lorenzo Music - Super-Pac
- Neil Ross - Clyde
- Susan Silo - Sue
- Russi Taylor - Pac-Baby
- Lennie Weinrib -
- Frank Welker - Chomp-Chomp the Dog
|This section requires expansion.|
- Ms. Pac-Man
- Baby Pac-Man
- List of television shows based on video games
- Pac-Man at the Internet Movie Database
- Pac-Man at TV.com
- Sarcastic review of an episode of Pac-Man at X-Entertainment
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th ion. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Jamaica.
The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. It must be noted that not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring, native species.
- (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Jamaica.
- (E) Endemic A species endemic to Jamaica.
- (I) Introduced A species introduced to Jamaica as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions.
- (Ex) Extirpated A species that no longer occurs in Jamaica although populations exist elsewhere.
Conservation status is highlighted as follows:
- (N) Near-threatened
- (V) Vulnerable
- (En) Endangered
- (CE) Critically endangered
Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae
Grebes are a species of bird that are well adapted for the sea and for diving. They are found in many parts of the world, mostly on calm and safe waters. They resemble ducks and loons is their physical appearance, but they swim lower in water than ducks do. They have an ability to submerge themselves under water, a technique they use to escape an approaching danger or predator. Despite their prowess when swimming and on water, they are much less agile and waddle quite awkwardly on land, and they are fairly poor with their flying as well.1 There are 20 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus
- Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps
Shearwaters and Petrels
Order: Procellariiformes Family: Procellariidae
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. 2 There are 75 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma hasitata (A)(N)
- Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus (A)
- Little Shearwater Puffinus assimilis (A)
- Audubon's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri (A)
Order: Procellariiformes Family: Hydrobatidae
The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Wilson's Storm-Petrel Oceanites oceanicus
- Leach's Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa (A)
Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Phaethontidae
Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus (A)
- White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus
Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Pelecanidae
Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica.
- American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (A)
- Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis
Boobies and Gannets
Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Sulidae
The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Masked Booby Sula dactylatra (A)
- Red-footed Booby Sula sula (A)
- Brown Booby Sula leucogaster
Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Phalacrocoracidae
The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus (A)
- Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (A)
Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Anhingidae
Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Anhinga Anhinga anhinga (A)
Order: Pelecaniformes Family: Fregatidae
Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black and white or completely black, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males haveinflatablecoloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens
Bitterns, Herons and Egrets
Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Ardeidae
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias
- Great Egret Ardea alba
- Reddish Egret Egretta rufescens (A)
- Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor
- Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea
- Snowy Egret Egretta thula
- Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
- Green Heron Butorides virescens
- Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
- Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Nyctanassa violacea
- Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis
- American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus (A)
Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Ciconiidae
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Wood Stork Mycteria americana (A)
Ibises and Spoonbills
Order: Ciconiiformes Family: Threskiornithidae
The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica.
- White Ibis Eudocimus albus
- Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber (A)
- Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus (A)
- Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja (A)
Order: Phoenicopteriformes Family: Phoenicopteridae
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (1.5 m) high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Caribbean Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber (A)
Ducks, Geese and Swans
Order: Anseriformes Family: Anatidae
The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 24 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor (A)
- West Indian Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna arborea (V)
- Black-bellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis (A)
- Snow Goose Chen caerulescens (A)
- Canada Goose Branta canadensis (A)
- Orinoco Goose Neochen jubata (A) (N)
- Wood Duck Aix sponsa (A)
- American Wigeon Anas americana (A)
- Gadwall Anas strepera (A)
- Green-winged Teal Anas carolinensis (A)
- Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (A)
- Northern Pintail Anas acuta (A)
- White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (A)
- Blue-winged Teal Anas discors
- Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera (A)
- Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata (A)
- Canvasback Aythya valisineria (A)
- Redhead Aythya americana (A)
- Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris (A)
- Greater Scaup Aythya marila (A)
- Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis (A)
- Bufflehead Bucephala albeola (A)
- Masked Duck Nomonyx dominica
- Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis
New World vultures
Order: Falconiformes Family: Cathartidae
The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion. There are 7 species worldwide, all of which are found only in the Americas, and 2 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Black Vulture Coragyps atratus (A)
- Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura
Order: Falconiformes Family: Pandionidae
The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, Kites and Eagles
Order: Falconiformes Family: Accipitridae
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus (A)
- Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis (A)
- Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis (A)
- Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus (A)
- Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus (A)
- Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus (A)
- Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis
Caracaras and Falcons
Order: Falconiformes Family: Falconidae
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway (A)
- Southern Caracara Caracara plancus (A)
- American Kestrel Falco sparverius
- Merlin Falco columbarius (A)
- Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
New World quails
Order: Galliformes Family: Odontophoridae
The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits. There are 32 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas, and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus (N)
Order: Galliformes Family: Numididae
Guineafowl are a group of African, seed-eating, ground-nesting birds that resemble partridges, but with featherless heads and spangled grey plumage. There are 6 species worldwide and1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Helmeted Guineafowl Numida meleagris (I)
Order: Gruiformes Family: Aramidae
The Limpkin resembles a large rail. It has drab brown plumage and a greyer head and neck.
- Limpkin Aramus guarauna
Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots
Order: Gruiformes Family: Rallidae
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Black Rail Laterallus jamaicensis (A)
- Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris
- King Rail Rallus elegans (A)
- Uniform Crake Amaurolimnas concolor (Ex)
- Sora Porzana carolina (A)
- Yellow-breasted Crake Porzana flaviventer
- Spotted Rail Pardirallus maculatus (A)
- Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinica
- Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
- American Coot Fulica americana
- Caribbean Coot Fulica caribaea (N)
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Jacanidae
The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Northern Jacana Jacana spinosa
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Haematopodidae
The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus (A)
Avocets and Stilts
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Recurvirostridae
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus
- American Avocet Recurvirostra americana (A)
Plovers and Lapwings
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Charadriidae
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Jamaica.
- American Golden-Plover Pluvialis dominica (A)
- Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola
- Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus
- Wilson's Plover Charadrius wilsonia
- Killdeer Charadrius vociferus
- Piping Plover Charadrius melodus (A) (N)
- Snowy Plover Charadrius alexandrinus (A)
Sandpipers and allies
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Scolopacidae
The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 26 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Wilson's Snipe Gallinago delicata (A)
- Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus
- Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus (A)
- Marbled Godwit Limosa fedoa (A)
- Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
- Long-billed Curlew Numenius americanus (A) (N)
- Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda (A)
- Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca
- Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes
- Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria (A)
- Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia
- Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
- Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres
- Red Knot Calidris canutus (A)
- Sanderling Calidris alba
- Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla
- Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri
- Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla
- White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis (A)
- Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos (A)
- Dunlin Calidris alpina (A)
- Stilt Sandpiper Calidris himantopus (A)
- Buff-breasted Sandpiper Tryngites subruficollis (A) (N)
- Ruff Philomachus pugnax (A)
- Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor (A)
- Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus (A)
Skuas and Jaegers
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Stercorariidae
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus (A)
- Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus (A)
- Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus (A)
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Laridae
Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis (A)
- American Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus (A)
- Bonaparte's Gull Larus philadelphia
- Laughing Gull Larus atricilla
- Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (A)
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Sternidae
Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica (A)
- Caspian Tern Sterna caspia (A)
- Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis
- Royal Tern Sterna maxima
- Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii
- Common Tern Sterna hirundo (A)
- Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri (A)
- Least Tern Sterna antillarum
- Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus
- Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata
- Black Tern Chlidonias niger
- Brown Noddy Anous stolidus
Order: Charadriiformes Family: Rynchopidae
Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Black Skimmer Rynchops niger (A)
Pigeons and Doves
Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae
Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Rock Pigeon Columba livia (I)
- White-crowned Pigeon Patagioenas leucocephala (N)
- Scaly-naped Pigeon Patagioenas squamosa (A)
- Ring-tailed Pigeon Patagioenas caribaea (E) (V)
- Plain Pigeon Patagioenas inornata (N)
- Eurasian Turtle-Dove Streptopelia turtur (I)
- African Collared-Dove Streptopelia roseogrisea (I)
- Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura
- Zenaida Dove Zenaida aurita
- White-winged Dove Zenaida asiatica
- Common Ground-Dove Columbina passerina
- Caribbean Dove Leptotila jamaicensis
- Crested Quail-Dove Geotrygon versicolor (E) (N)
- Ruddy Quail-Dove Geotrygon montana
- Blue-headed Quail-Dove Starnoenas cyanocephala (I) (En)
Parrots, Macaws and allies
Order: Psittaciformes Family: Psittacidae
Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Olive-throated Parakeet Aratinga nana
- Green-rumped Parrotlet Forpus passerinus (I)
- Yellow-billed Amazon Amazona collaria (E) (V)
- Black-billed Amazon Amazona agilis (E) (V)
Cuckoos and Anis
Order: Cuculiformes Family: Cuculidae
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus (A)
- Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus (A)
- Mangrove Cuckoo Coccyzus minor
- Jamaican Lizard-Cuckoo Saurothera vetula (E)
- Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo Hyetornis pluvialis (E)
- Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani
Order: Strigiformes Family: Tytonidae
Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Barn Owl Tyto alba
Order: Strigiformes Family: Strigidae
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Jamaican Owl Pseudoscops grammicus (E)
Order: Caprimulgiformes Family: Nyctibiidae
The potoos (sometimes called Poor-Me-Ones) are large near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are nocturnal insectivores which lack the bristles around the mouth found in the true nightjars. There are 5 species, all of which are from the South American tropical region, and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Northern Potoo Nyctibius jamaicensis
Order: Caprimulgiformes Family: Caprimulgidae
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor (A)
- Antillean Nighthawk Chordeiles gundlachii
- Chuck-will's-widow Caprimulgus carolinensis (A)
- Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus vociferus (A)
Order: Apodiformes Family: Apodidae
Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Black Swift Cypseloides niger
- White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris
- Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica (A)
- Antillean Palm-Swift Tachornis phoenicobia
Order: Trochiliformes Family: Trochilidae
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. There are 337 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Jamaican Mango Anthracothorax mango (E)
- Red-billed Streamertail Trochilus polytmus (E)
- Black-billed Streamertail Trochilus scitulus (E)
- Vervain Hummingbird Mellisuga minima
- Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris (A)
Order: Coraciiformes Family: Alcedinidae
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon
Order: Coraciiformes Family: Todidae
Todies are a group of small near passerine forest species of endemic to the Caribbean. These birds have colourful plumage and resemble small kingfishers, but with flattened bills with serrated edges. They eat small prey such as insects and lizards. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Jamaican Tody Todus todus (E)
Woodpeckers and allies
Order: Piciformes Family: Picidae
Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Jamaican Woodpecker Melanerpes radiolatus (E)
- Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius (A)
- Fernandina's Flicker Colaptes fernandinae (A) (V)
Order: Passeriformes Family: Tyrannidae
Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain colouring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous. There are 429 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas and 15 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Jamaican Elaenia Myiopagis cotta (E)
- Greater Antillean Elaenia Elaenia fallax
- Western Wood-Pewee Contopus sordidulus (A)
- Eastern Wood-Pewee Contopus virens (A)
- Jamaican Pewee Contopus pallidus (E)
- Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii (A)
- Sad Flycatcher Myiarchus barbirostris (E)
- Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer (A)
- Rufous-tailed Flycatcher Myiarchus validus (E)
- Stolid Flycatcher Myiarchus stolidus
- Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus (A)
- Gray Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis
- Loggerhead Kingbird Tyrannus caudifasciatus
- Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana (A)
- Jamaican Becard Pachyramphus niger (E)
Order: Passeriformes Family: Alaudidae
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis
Swallows and Martins
Order: Passeriformes Family: Hirundinidae
The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Purple Martin Progne subis (A)
- Caribbean Martin Progne dominicensis
- Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor (A)
- Golden Swallow Tachycineta euchrysea (A) (V)
- Northern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis (A)
- Bank Swallow Riparia riparia (A)
- Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (A)
- Cave Swallow Petrochelidon fulva
- Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
Wagtails and Pipits
Order: Passeriformes Family: Motacillidae
The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- American Pipit Anthus rubescens (A)
Order: Passeriformes Family: Regulidae
The kinglets or crests are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula (A)
Order: Passeriformes Family: Bombycillidae
The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterized by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum (A)
Mockingbirds and Thrashers
Order: Passeriformes Family: Mimidae
The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their colouring tends towards dull greys and browns . There are 35 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis (A)
- Bahama Mockingbird Mimus gundlachii
- Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos
- Pearly-eyed Thrasher Margarops fuscatus (A)
Thrushes and allies
Order: Passeriformes Family: Turdidae
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Rufous-throated Solitaire Myadestes genibarbis
- Veery Catharus fuscescens (A)
- Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus
- Bicknell's Thrush Catharus bicknelli (A) (V)
- Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus (A)
- Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina (A)
- Red-legged Thrush Turdus plumbeus
- White-eyed Thrush Turdus jamaicensis (E)
- American Robin Turdus migratorius (A)
- White-chinned Thrush Turdus aurantius (E)
Crows, Jays, Ravens and Magpies
Order: Passeriformes Family: Corvidae
The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Black-billed Magpie Pica hudsonia
- Jamaican Crow Corvus jamaicensis (E)
Order: Passeriformes Family: Sturnidae
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Common Myna Acridotheres tristis (I)
- European Starling Sturnus vulgaris (I)
Weavers and allies
Order: Passeriformes Family: Ploceidae
The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Yellow-crowned Bishop Euplectes afer (I)
- Orange Bishop Euplectes franciscanus (A)
- Red Bishop Euplectes orix (I)
Waxbills and allies
Order: Passeriformes Family: Estrildidae
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Nutmeg Mannikin Lonchura punctulata (I)
- Black-headed Munia Lonchura malacca (I)
Order: Passeriformes Family: Vireonidae
The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. There are 52 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Jamaica.
- White-eyed Vireo Vireo griseus (A)
- Jamaican Vireo Vireo modestus (E)
- Blue Mountain Vireo Vireo osburni (E) (N)
- Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons (A)
- Blue-headed Vireo Vireo solitarius (A)
- Warbling Vireo Vireo gilvus
- Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus (A)
- Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus (A)
- Black-whiskered Vireo Vireo altiloquus
New World warblers
Order: Passeriformes Family: Parulidae
The New World warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. There are 119 species worldwide and 38 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus (A)
- Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera (A) (N)
- Tennessee Warbler Vermivora peregrina (A)
- Orange-crowned Warbler Vermivora celata (A)
- Nashville Warbler Vermivora ruficapilla (A)
- Northern Parula Parula americana
- Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia
- Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica (A)
- Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia (A)
- Cape May Warbler Dendroica tigrina
- Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens
- Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata
- Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens (A)
- Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca (A)
- Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica (A)
- Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus (A)
- Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor
- Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum
- Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea (A)
- Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata (A)
- Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea (A) (V)
- Arrow-headed Warbler Dendroica pharetra (E)
- Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia
- American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla
- Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea (A)
- Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorus (A)
- Swainson's Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii (A)
- Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla
- Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis
- Louisiana Waterthrush Seiurus motacilla
- Kentucky Warbler Oporornis formosus (A)
- Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis (A)
- Mourning Warbler Oporornis philadelphia (A)
- Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas
- Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina (A)
- Wilson's Warbler Wilsonia pusilla (A)
- Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis (A)
- Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens (A)
Order: Passeriformes Family: Coerebidae
The Bananaquit is a small passerine bird. It has a slender, curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers and is the only member of the genus Coereba (Vieillot, 1809) and is normally placed within the family Coerebidae, although there is uncertainty whether that placement is correct.
- Bananaquit Coereba flaveola
Order: Passeriformes Family: Thraupidae
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings. There are 256 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea (A)
- Summer Tanager Piranga rubra (A)
- Jamaican Spindalis Spindalis nigricephala (E)
- Jamaican Euphonia Euphonia jamaica (E)
- Red-legged Honeycreeper Cyanerpes cyaneus (A)
Buntings, Sparrows, Seedeaters and allies
Order: Passeriformes Family: Emberizidae
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 11 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Yellow-faced Grassquit Tiaris olivacea
- Black-faced Grassquit Tiaris bicolor
- Yellow-shouldered Grassquit Loxipasser anoxanthus (E)
- Orangequit Euneornis campestris (E)
- Greater Antillean Bullfinch Loxigilla violacea
- Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola (I)
- Lark Sparrow Chondestes grammacus (A)
- Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum
- Lincoln's Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii (A)
- White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys (A)
- Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis (A)
Saltators, Cardinals and allies
Order: Passeriformes Family: Cardinalidae
The cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. There are 43 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus (A)
- Blue Grosbeak Passerina caerulea (A)
- Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea (A)
- Painted Bunting Passerina ciris (A) (N)
- Dickcissel Spiza americana (A)
Troupials and allies
Order: Passeriformes Family: Icteridae
The icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 98 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Jamaica.
- Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus
- Jamaican Blackbird Nesopsar nigerrimus (E) (En)
- Greater Antillean Grackle Quiscalus niger
- Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis (I)
- Jamaican Oriole Icterus leucopteryx
- Venezuelan Troupial Icterus icterus
- Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula (A)
- Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius (A)
Siskins, Crossbills and allies
Order: Passeriformes Family: Fringillidae
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- White-winged Crossbill Loxia leucoptera
Order: Passeriformes Family: Passeridae
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Jamaica.
- House Sparrow Passer domesticus (I)